Automatically translated from Basque, translation may contain errors. More information here. Elhuyarren itzultzaile automatikoaren logoa

"Am I a poet? Poetry is feelings, others will have to respond to that."

  • Silence and hand gestures are lost when you launch a conversation. It is a pity. When Daniel Landart was listening to this reflection, the photographer thought the same thing the other day sent the journalist a bunch of photos of hand gestures. From the Ziburu Trade Show we have met on the eve of the tribute that the Baltsan and ARGIA association are going to give you, between books, in the Donoztitarra Cultured Room, to speak in detail about what it has brought to Basque culture for 60 years.
Gari Garaialde

At the time of agreeing to the request for an interview, we told him that perhaps with the fever would not be good for it. Today we do good.

I felt sick from the breasts and had it all the time. Over the course of aging, I've been added to other diseases, diseases of the elderly -- I need to pay a lot of attention, because I mean, I'm no more for the most spectacular. I wake up at six o'clock in the morning and from six o'clock in the afternoon I am the next day, because I don't leave anymore.

Are you missing the spectacular ones?

No doubt. At least 40 years after so many spectacular concerts, I've been wrong. 50 years ago TV fluffy, now I can watch bertsos shows and a lot more. But if they're worse than me, then what you want, it's like this.

You have not, therefore, been to the concert with the 50 years of Errobi.

I can't hear more music, it gives me a headache. I was in an essay in Senpere greeting very well and I was glad of myself because I could go. I was someone else, but I'm not capable of being in the whole concert. I feel satisfied.

60 years ago he started writing with the Hil-hil Theatre.

That's it.

Have you spent 60 years writing what follows?

I do nothing important. But I still have some things… how am I going to say? Started. Let's give, Bidelagunak could be titled. You can make articles or references from people who have recognized and marked me and helped me. That is what I would like to end.

Don't you write more poetry?

No, I don't do poetry.

The working class, Ipar Euskal Herria, the homeland, and everyday life and love. These have been the inspirations. What worries you or excites you today?

[Silence]. What Joxean Arce told me: "I'm not easy to talk about spirituality." Of the relationship, of the future… If you are closing your eyes, what will it be? I think a lot about it.

Do you fear death?

No, just in case. Two years ago I was very ill, spent three months in the hospital and in a care center. I thought [silence and a brush gesture] but it was not tenor. I would not wish to suffer any more, that is my only concern. And don't lose your head.

"Although we are the ones who speak in Basque, I realize we have a lot of strength"

Is it a topic you mention among friends?

Not so much. But even if it's not, we talk. I have regular visits and we talk about current events, I understand what happens. I'm still interested, but I know I'm not going to be interested more and more. That scares me.

Because life will become an interest and therefore disconnected?

I don't know.

Reviewing life, the relationship you have with books is due to the weakness you suffer, because mothers read texts in Basque when they were nailed in bed.

No doubt. In the end we would have to reconvert to the disease, because otherwise I would be a labrador today, because my father wanted that and could not tell him no. Labrador and done. I was half ill and I couldn't go to school, I was twice and I was sent home twice. Priest Charriton, who was the principal of the school, had a lot of ingenuity, because he told my mother that they were looking for an apprentice in a printing press. They took me and thanks to that printing press, on the one hand, I was able to go to a pleumologist for four years, and on the other hand, I was always reading. I've been a hand worker, but not any handworker, I spent eight times a day reading in my work and something remains. Then, from a very young age I had the sanza to get into Enbata – bo, santza no, so it happened. My classes have been, as could not be otherwise, having been at the MRJC [Movement of Giristionary Youth of Baserri Gunea] reflecting with priests and friends, having always been reading in the same work and having entered young people in the Abertzale Enbata movement. There I found Jakes Abeberry and Jean Louis Davant, a great teacher to me, with whom I learned a lot, through the theater, in Enbata and then. I started in theatre from a very young age in Muger and went on for twenty years, every weekend I spent in that theater.

Let's pause a little bit in childhood. At home they only listened to Euskera, but still their burdens considered theirs as French.

Our parents were French, not Basque. I, thanks to Enbata or those of Enbata, did not have our aitamas the conscience of being Basque. They were French, but then in our country there were only two people who spoke in French, the horseshoe and the queen of the public school, all the others were Basque, who knew Basque, and the Basque was our only language. My sister realized that her children went to Hazparn School and they had to do as a refrain to speak French to the teacher. French was a foreign language. With television, things changed.

The school also had its influence. The Anti manual was fruitful.

But at school, we went with neighbors, we talked in Euskera, and at home we went the same way. We spent six in school, three in the morning and three in the afternoon, but outside that we were talking in Basque. The Frenchman entered the houses with television. Television still seemed more French.

The use has been ttipating constantly and we have no more language than the square.

But we're aware that what wasn't 60 years ago or had by some intellectuals. It's been a huge movement, and although we're the ones who speak in Basque, I realize we have a lot of strength. Although difficult, it gives me incredible hope.

Your concern was that every year over 2,000 young people traveled from Iparralde. 60 years later, 3,000 citizens, mostly wealthy and French, settled in the Northern Basque Country each year.

[Silence] In my home country, a farmer's house has been sold for a million euros. I don't know, I now live a little bit in the past. But the needs are there Bizi, Alda and everyone. As early as 1921, Priest Jean Barbier talked about the houses built by foreigners, he called "topo" and Father of Mixel Labegueri, what did our beloved land do? Sell abroad, go slowly! We also had it in 1961. Money.

The evil of money.

This is not good news for our Basque country. We are [in 1967 published the name of a poem]... we are, but...

Going back to the atmosphere 60 years ago, Enbata's were not well seen. You had some dirty galas.

In the printing press was the sea erdal, it was the only one who knew a little Basque. Two clients arrived, one Jean Hiriart-Urruty, who would then be an academic and who was Deputy General Pierre Narbaitz, to run the bishopric press and with them spoke Basque. So in the printing press they called me the petit basque [euskaldun ttipia]. But when you learned that it was in Enbata, then you called me Basque [dirty Basque]. Always leaves Basque… Comment vas-tu sale Basque? ["How are you Euskaldun zikin?"] and so on. This man was a man with power, not just any simple worker. In 1968 we premiered the Matalas Theatre in Baiona and I also strengthened myself, telling him that if he continued like this I would not greet anymore. He gave in. It is true that it was difficult. We were all a dirty chicken. The first militants too. In other parties there were no, they voted for this or for it, and the afitxas were paid to encolate. A man in Hazparn asked me how much Ximun Haran paid me. The mills were silver, threatened, launched by the press -- it was hard. We were poorly seen, but still they were afraid. Fear and respect.


I don't know how, but they were afraid.

"I was a labor force, but not any labor, I spent eight times a day reading in my work."

How many years did Enbata do?

Seventeen years old.

Did you write in Enbata?

No. My first job was Enbata folding. There I met the singer Estitxu, who was then called Estibaliz. At first it appeared once a month, but then Abeberry had the idea of doing it every week. We gathered between seven and eight people, it was a ttipi-ttipi group. I was playing the newspaper in our printing press.

Where did you write before?

He wrote in Herria, in Etxea, a Catholic women's post, run by [Pierre] Narbay, in Gaztea, [Jean] directed by Hiriart-Urruty; and in Pan-Pin's children's magazine, Joseph Camino.

You chose poetry.

But I didn't know at the time. There were journalists in our printing press and it challenges me: am I capable of writing something? I wanted to try something. From that ideology I heard in Enbata and the same way I healed them, I broadened the ideas I wanted with my words.

Poetry as challenge.

Yes, as your own challenge. Then you have to see the level ... [laughter]

Gabriel Aresti recommended to keep writing.

Yes, it is.

How do you remember that moment?

I didn't know Aresti, I hadn't read anything. Same with Miranda. Look up and down, I didn't read anything until I died, because then I would read the Child's arms. Some intellectuals here, some priests and other sides read, but if not, Mirande nehork didn't know it. I sang, but I didn't know the writers.

Who did you read to?

A good number of books emerged in time. Then yes, [Ramon] Saizarbitoria and those. But he was reading to us.

It started without a model.

That's ugly.

Or not... I had books from Erlisions [laughs], that hundred saints [The Life of One Hundred Saints of Basile Joanateguy], the storybooks of Hiriart-Urruty, [Piarres] Lafittek publish What and What... some of you like it, but not. Also Iratzeder. Iratzeder has marked me a lot. If you can give the word poet, surely Iratzeder is a poet. But what's between him and me is that before I sang the first poetry, I had learned 200 songs willingly. I had listened to my father's songs and I didn't really know. [Laughter]

Does literature and poetry follow today?

Mini. I read with regret.

I've stayed a little bit in the past, with Artze.

Goodness in the past?


Some blind written poetry would later become songs. In addition, popular songs sung in various places with voting. Among others, Your eye sang Laboa.

The environment looked like this, we were a few. I had the chance to see Mikel Lana in Donazahar. They were the first performances at the time, and I was lucky enough to meet all the people who then moved. I have a musically sung Mikel smile in your eyes, because then he opened the door to Andde [Duhalde] and other singers. But it has to be said that the environment was like this, the environment or the situation. Singers from the South always had problems at the border and the same at the border. It was the last years of Franco, if we had ETA refugees, here it was awakening our conscience… That is what it is. That was the case, because it was necessary.

What was their relationship with refugees like?

It had a close relationship. It supported me by handing out ballot papers, putting up posters, attending demonstrations, attending hunger strikes. He supported them as Enbata militants. On the other hand, I was staying with them on Pannecau Street, I personally knew a crowd, Xabier Elosegi, Mikel Urteaga or others. If there were dozens and dozens, do not put them at risk.

It was part of that typical world.

For a moment, I personally knew all the nationalists and those who wrote the same thing. Txillardegi won the Txomin Agirre prize in 1968, offered us a dinner and the others came. So I met Artze, I met Saizarbitoria before, but yes, at that dinner I met about twenty blows and followed some. Also with the ARGIA: Antton Santamaria and they came once a month to the North and I went with them. Relationships.

As for the knowledge that life brings, what is friendship for you?

I have many friends, I have friends and many acquaintances. I have friends 40-50 years ago, I think in the last 30 years I haven't made friends. Most of them I met my friends through the theater or Enbata. Friendship: That I have been so known for so long to drink coffee and that we are talking about things of the present with those old. Adherence is friendship, trust and wakefulness.

Theater has a lot to do with your life. Why was it linked to that art?

It's linked to nationalism. Inside Enbata we saw that things had to be organized. I remember Jakes Abeberry always told me, "Hik does theater, you need to create a partnership that brings all groups together." The theater that was made until then was managed by priests, could say almost as a Catholic act. We started collecting and reflecting on some nationalist prisons (Marceline Alberbide, Pettan Elizalde...). We created the Assembly of Playwrights. In 1966 we held a first congress in Heleta, we called Theatre Day. We started with the Mass, I asked [Piarres] Larzabal to make a predic, also came [Telesforo] Monzón. Next year we formed the Assembly of Dramatists in Baigorri. In our four objectives we sought attention with those of the South and took ten years to complete the Assembly of Basque Theatre Groups (EATB). At the time, everyone was amateurs, and we started to cross over there. The South were subjected to nationalism and censorship. I had the biggest relationships with Oiartzun's Intxixu group, then with Goaz's group. If there was a movement there, I was always on the move.

How did this network go through the theater through censorship?

Specifically, in 1971 we had to give When? Lazkao. Its organizers had to send the text to the Civil Governor and changed two words. We had to hand it over to 10 p.m. and at 5 p.m. we had to hand it in front of a prisoner, he gave us permission to see the night. Until the last moment, we neither the organizers nor the people knew it. That prisoner didn't come, so we didn't know anything. 1,200 people gathered. People came, come! But he came not suddenly as a theater player, but as a political action to come to the theater. I recognize those of the Kemen group in Lazkao and thank them for the Etxe gabe theater in 1972. It was totally banned and has not been published to date. The innocent servant I did not know what censorship was! The performances were the same. Pantxoa Carrer confirmed to me that there was always fear.

"What will happen when I stay with my eyes? That's what I think a lot about."

The theater had a great presence in Iparralde. It was a whole generation of young people immersed in theater.

Yes, and we also talked about intimate issues, we made a committed theater.

Was it clear from the beginning that theatre could be a way to guide political ideas?

That was clear from Enbata's ideology. It is evident that in the groups there were people who had conscience and others who fueled to capture the theater they did with the huns or with their friends and with the flames.

And what was your audience like? Was he nationalist?

What had a nationalist conscience was a minority. What came to us was to see any other theater. Because there was no television! At the time there were more groups, but only twice they gave theater in the village. On the contrary, we began to give the work Matalas in different countries. Yes or no? We gave it in six countries in 1970, and we went to Lazkao in 1971 and to Paris. Until then, people from the same town met in theatrical groups, and we started to form groups of people with similar ideas. It was a big change.

I heard him say that his aim was to "flee the Basque theatre".

It wasn't just my goal.

No. Pierre Larzabal also said that the Basque theatre had to "mature".

Larzabal, also Monzón. Necessity and necessity. It has been very important that there are professionals in Basque. Amateurs are important, but we need professionals in Basque as in other countries.

Do we need for ourselves or for others?

For us.

The theater environment returns to the plaza with the liberts.

On the one hand, the theatrical performances of the ancient peoples (Armendaritz, Makean, Aiherran...) have been tapped, but on the other hand, there are libertarians and pastoralists who are very important. The Sulatino has always surprised me, so many things are done in Zuberoa! The Mixel Etxekopar itself is a real movement. So, going back to language, you don't hear it, but we have a lot of strength. I have a lot of hope because we are aware.

Comedian comedy in Lapurdi and Baxenabar, in 2014 he published 50 years of theatre history.

It's very interesting and it's not because I've done it [laughter]. It was found that before us a great job was also done and the theater was chosen: I had not learned in school that they performed theater to perpetuate the language; they read and enthusiastically maintained through the theater. Theater and singing are of great importance. When I talk about the song, I remember that in Garazi, in Irisarri or in villages like this, after giving theater, we had a dinner and we were all singing. It was wonderful! That's what I've lived. Now in silence, music gives me a headache… hello is [laughter]. At least I've met him and lived him.

Do the Basques write our memory and genealogy enough?

I think so. We are a living people, with strength. We are a people and that will last the year.

Write, stage or lead, what do you like most about theater?

To tell the truth, it was nothing good. I liked the time and then correct it (directing is a great word, helping). Instead, I was trying to gendarme. With amateur groups that is, some have the gift or the ease, but others throw and throw, without knowing the text, they can't learn! Patience was a story, because I have no patience. He was collecting great cholera, but on the other hand, they had a lot of merit. It was a good time. Now I have something to confuse. I'm happy because I've been able to live all that, and from that printing job, I've gotten into another world. I thought that with professional incorporation into culture this was going to increase me, but in the 20-25 years I've been in culture I haven't made a single book.


Extraordinary Plenary. Complicated simple things are left. I retreated and made five books.

In an interview dedicated to ARGIA, he talked about it and said, "I saw many spectacular things, and he dreamed of the part that merged my trust." In the interview he has just given to Berria he also says that he is not considered a poet. What are you a man of low self-esteem?

[Silence] I have to say that I am very shy and brave at the same time. I have done my best. My goal was to scrutinize as best as possible and burn what healed. I won't call myself, nor will I soak. After all, I have done so with zeal, as the missionaries did a little bit. I have worked as a missionary Basque, like many other militants. I have to say, however, that I have had a serious, because my theatres have been broadcast and I have lived life. Then the value? Some will grow something, others will be trusted. Am I a poet or not? For some, for others, not. Poetry is familiar and others will have to respond. The rebirth of poetry is not enough, some are closer to poetry, others are more missionaries of propaganda. In my songs maybe I haven't taken enough traction, I've sculpted quite a few things. But I've done a lot of things as a militant.

Who is the poet today for you?

[Negative with head]

Do I not have to ask you this?

I answer the previous ones, which are dead. Enrique Iratzeder and Artze. But there are many. In the poetry books I've read, some have made me really excited, maybe not full works, but some poetry has. [Gabriel] Aresti as well. And [Xabier] Lete, what stuff he didn't want them!

In 1978, he would publish Aihen Ahula. Was it welcome?

Yes. It had three editions. It was very well read, even at ikastolas and schools. If Radio Côte Basque read the radio and read it completely on the radio and I know it was a hearing. Yeah, I think it's been my most read book. It has to be said that at the time most books were sculpted by priests. Jean Etxepare talked about my father's rights, but I was the first in Iparralde to make an autobiographical book.

Did you like the locals?

Yes. My father did not read, therefore the mother read to her, lying down. My mother told me I wasn't reading a part of what I was talking to my father. I count children's time in the book. Later I took the Weak again in 2011. Many things change with age. I could say that, as I have more doubts about the future than I do about security, I have also been changed in life. I wanted to pick up and write some passages and add other parts of life so that we can spend the 23 years of printing.

In 1994 he published Batita Haundia. Egunkaria placed the headline of the “rupture book” on the interview offered, was it a rupture?

I don't know. Who said that?



"This is a book of respect that I have sculpted with great affection and that may be reflective, making the reader reflect. At least that's what I want," he said in an interview.

Well, he was talking about a topic that didn't appear in Iparralde's books. I couldn't say the break. At a time when it was reflexive, but which has since been incorporated into the topics that are being discussed today, it is a socialized topic. It has to be said that, from the point of view of the Catholic religion, we live in a very limited and limited environment, and we could not talk about such things. So, scrutinize that this could happen in a family of Basques...

"I had not taught at school that they used to do theater to perpetuate language."

In Batita Haundia there is talk of homosexuality, as you say, it was nothing common in the literature of the time. That agenda option?

It was that I met someone in the printing press who lived with a man. I was told it was important to talk about such a subject. In the book it is very violent, because the power of religion is there, the priest asks Batita Haundia to turn a son into a priest to counteract a little the adultery done. It is true that it could have been a scandalous subject, but those who taught me did not tell me anything. That's how it happened.

This book collects reflections, lessons, duels, confessions from an old man who relies on his life in solitude. In his day he was not old, now he is older...

I'm old! [Irriz]

OK. Do you do this exercise too?

The past is past. I think more about the last few years left.

Changing the subject, he was named an honor member. What does this mean?

Continue with Ontsala, continue with the congresses. But I'm not able. It has been a great pleasure for me, and I say again that I do not know if I have really deserved it, but you have decided and I thank you.

Euskaltzaindia is a tool of this people. There are also the Basque Public Institution and the Basque Public School of Urban Helmets, but they also depend on France. Finally, I would like to have your vision of these structures that Iparralde has achieved in recent years.

Euskal Kultur Erakundea. I believe that these movements and the benefits of those struggles – not the struggle, the battle – have been very important. There have been great battles, we need a lot of wear, a lot of strength has been lost for assembly, but they were necessary. Now, even these, it follows and will follow the work of the associations. The generations who live and accompany us in any institution, we will need to talk about militantism because militantism saves us. We have many, and it's not going to be a profit. A lot. We're always in knitting, even though sometimes we think we win or we're better. We have to be in the militant spirit. We forget it several times. So on the one hand I am optimistic and on the other I also have that vision.

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